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        Investing in Tech Stocks

        Updated: Oct. 5, 2020, 4:21 p.m.

        The technology sector is vast, comprising gadget makers, software developers, wireless providers, streaming services, semiconductor companies, and cloud computing providers, to name a few. Any company that sells a product or service heavily infused with technology likely belongs to the tech sector.

        Software companies are increasingly moving to a software-as-a-service model, wherein customers buy a subscription to a program instead of a one-time license. This generates recurring revenue for the software company.

        Powering all that hardware are semiconductor chips. Semiconductor companies design and/or manufacture central processing units, graphics processing units, memory chips, and a wide variety of other chips that find their way into today’s devices.

        Telecom companies that provide wireless services are part of the tech sector. So are the video streaming companies that provide easy access to high-quality content; and so are the cloud computing providers that power those streaming services.

        Hardware Companies

        These design and build devices such as:

        • Personal computers
        • Smartphones
        • Fitness trackers
        • Smart speakers
        • Enterprise equipment like servers and networking gear

        Software Companies

        These design the software that runs on hardware, such as.

        • Operating systems
        • Databases
        • Cybersecurity software
        • Productivity software

        The best tech stocks

        Many of the most valuable companies in the world are technology companies. These are some of the most dominant and impressive tech stocks.

        • Amazon.com (NASDAQ:AMZN) is the leading online retailer and the leading provider of cloud computing infrastructure.
        • Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT) is a dominant software company known for its Windows PC operating system and Office productivity software.
        • Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL) makes the iPhone, the iPad, and Mac computers., Intense customer loyalty ensures plenty of repeat customers.
        • Intel (NASDAQ:INTC) is one of the largest semiconductor companies in the world. Intel designs and manufactures CPUs for PCs and servers, as well as specialty chips for uses like artificial intelligence.
        • Cisco Systems (NASDAQ:CSCO) is the dominant provider of the enterprise networking hardware that forms the backbone of the internet.
        • Netflix (NASDAQ:NFLX) is the top dog in the video streaming industry, spending billions of dollars each year on content to keep its ever-growing subscriber base hooked.
        • Facebook (NASDAQ:FB) is the largest social media company, with over 2 billion daily active users across Facebook, Instagram, Messenger, and WhatsApp.
        • Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOG) (NASDAQ:GOOGL) is the parent company of online search giant Google and the popular Android operating system for smartphones.

        Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, and Alphabet (Google) are sometimes grouped together as the FAANG stocks. These companies dominate their industries, and their stocks have produced impressive returns over the past few years.

        The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

        The pandemic has been a mixed bag for the tech industry. Amazon has thrived as consumers have shifted hard toward e-commerce, with higher sales easily offsetting additional pandemic-related costs. Microsoft has also done well, buoyed by demand for collaboration software, devices, gaming, and cloud computing services as people spend more time at home.

        Apple has held its own during this crisis, partly thanks to economic stimulus measures passed by Congress and partly thanks to the launch of the affordable iPhone SE. Apple’s pricey devices have been in demand despite a highly uncertain economic environment.

        High demand for devices has helped Intel as well, with sales of laptops surging as people work from home. Intel’s data center business is another beneficiary, with customers snapping up powerful server chips to support cloud services.

        Cisco hasn’t been so lucky. While the company’s video conferencing business is booming, the core networking hardware business has suffered as customers pull back on spending. While the pandemic is hurting Cisco in the short term, the shifts toward e-commerce and working from home could ultimately boost demand for networking equipment in the long run.

        Netflix has seen its user base grow rapidly during the pandemic as people stayed home. The company had to temporarily pause production of all shows, but that didn’t stop people from signing up for the service.

        Both Facebook and Alphabet depend on advertising sales, so the steep decline in advertising from hard-hit industries like travel hurt both companies. Facebook held up better, managing to grow advertising sales during the worst of the pandemic. Alphabet suffered a small revenue decline, the first in its history.

        Only time will tell how the long-term trajectories of these major tech companies have been altered by the pandemic.

        How to analyze tech stocks

        For mature tech companies that produce profits, the price-to-earnings ratio is a useful metric. Divide stock price by per-share earnings and you get a multiple that tells you how highly the market values the company’s current earnings. The higher the multiple, the more value the market is placing on future earnings growth.

        Many tech companies aren’t profitable; the price-to-earnings ratio can’t evaluate them. Revenue growth matters more for these younger companies – if you’re investing in something unproven, you want to make sure it has solid growth prospects.

        For unprofitable tech companies, it’s also important that the bottom line be moving from losses toward profits. As a company grows, it should become more efficient, especially when it comes to the sales and marketing spending necessary to close deals. If it’s not, or if spending is growing as a percentage of revenue, that could indicate that something is wrong.

        Ultimately, a good tech stock is one that trades at a reasonable valuation given its growth prospects. Accurately figuring out those growth prospects is the hard part. If you expect earnings to skyrocket in the coming years, paying a premium for the stock can make sense. But if you’re wrong about those growth prospects, your investment may not work out.

        Investing in tech stocks can be risky, but you can reduce your risk by investing only when you feel confident that their growth prospects justify their valuations.

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